nedeľa, 17. marca 2013

Juraj Jánošík

17. March 1713 was the day, when Juraj Jánošík, in a cause of banditing, was sentenced and hanged on rob. That makes this day a 300 anniversery of his executon, so I decided to devote todays article to him.

Juro Jánošík, how we Slovaks call him famillary, is one of the most significant icons of Slovak culture. He is one of the few characters in Slovak history, who is still rembered and very popular. I can say myslef, as a native, that every child knows him, no matter what, and until he is in our minds, as an enteral hero of miserable Slovak nation, he will survive. In Slovakia, we have a wonderful (not that I like to hear it) phrase for "miserable Slovak nation" - "zbedačený slovenský ľud", very common phrase, especially in historical themes.
   Juraj Jánošík was born in Terchová (Terhely, small village in central Slovakia now, formerly Turózs county in Kingdom of Hungary) before 25. 1. 1688, as this is the date of his baptism in village register of Varín (Várna), because Terchová didn´t have its own rectory in the time. He comes form a liege family and from his childhood, he worked with his parents (as most of the habitants of Upper Hugary - now Slovakia) on lands owned by Ján Jakub Lowenburg from Teplička nad Váhom (Vágtapolca). As 18 yeas old young man, he was recruited to rebellion against the emperor Karol - Carolus IV. (as king of Hungary Karol III.) and all Habsburgs led by František - Ferenc II. Rákóczy. The rebellion failed in the battle near Trenčín (Trencsén) in 1708 and Jánošík fled home. But the punishmet was waiting wor him, and so, to serve imperal army for a few years. You are maybe surprised by such a low punishment for, in every word meaning, treason, but the emperor knew that most of the rebels were actually just young men forced to join the revolt. Anyway, they made him a prison guard of popular highwayman, Tomáš Uhorčík, who they finally caught. But you know, the word gave a word and before long, they both ran away from Bytča Castle, they both were prisons of in 1711. The legendery adventure can start.
   Uhorčík convinced Jánošík to join his group of bandits and soon, after Uhorčík left, he became a captain. With his group, they raided merchants and lords in Trenčín, Orava, Liptov counties as well as in Poland and Morava. After a year military caught him in a pub where Uhorčík was innkeepering under the name of Martin Mravec. In March 1713 they caught him again. He was quite lucky to have a court hearing in Liptovský Mikuláš (Liptószentmiklós) and an advocate but that didn´t help him. The mitigating circumstance were his young age, that he was the youngest in the group, that they didn´t kill or hurt anybody, and that his crimes weren´t as horrible as crimes of others bandits, but as I said, it didn´t help him. Jánošík was sentenced to death in the most painful way - hang on a rib. He was only 25 in the time.

And that´s all we know. Anything else you think you know is probably, the most sure just a legend. The legend that was created in the time of the strong national oppression of not-hungary nations in Kingdom of Hungagy by people. And then, during the Slovak National Revival by national revivalist who was trying to do absolutely everything that was possible to rise the courage and awareness in slovak people. That was the time of romantism in our literature. The most popular oeuvre is Smrť Jánošíkova (Death of Jánošík) by Ján Botto. And that´s why we, Slovaks and Poles and Czechs see this man as Slovak Robin Hood. Who stole from rich and give it to poor. Because if the legend is true or not, we needed it. We needed a hero like this. To survive with a flame in heart and Slovak language on tonge.

The Icon of Juraj Janosik: More of a tradition than a history, more hero than a man.

1 komentár:

  1. Bardzo dobry artykuł :)
    Dla zainteresowanych historią Juraja Janosika polecam również artykuł: